February 28, 2023

Hypospadias and chordee are inborn abnormalities that affect the male genitalia. It is a urological condition that can vary from mild to severe, and understanding it is essential to provide appropriate treatment and care. Hypospadias is the condition where the urinary opening is not at the tip of the penis, but on the underside. Chordee is the bending of the penis, usually downwards. Let’s take a closer look at ten important things you need to know about hypospadias and chordee as inborn abnormalities.

1. Types of Hypospadias

Hypospadias has different types depending on where the urinary opening is found. It ranges from mild, where the opening is near the tip of the penis, to severe, where the opening is closer to the scrotum. The types of hypospadias are glandular, penile, scrotal, and perineal. The glandular type has the opening near the tip of the penis, the penile type in the middle of the penis, scrotal near the scrotum, and perineal at the base of the penis. The severity of each type determines the difficulty of the surgery and the postoperative care.

2. Causes of Hypospadias and Chordee

The exact cause of hypospadias and chordee is unknown. However, many factors could contribute to it, such as genetics and hormonal imbalances. Studies show that exposure to certain chemicals during pregnancy could increase the risk of a baby developing hypospadias. Chordee is commonly associated with hypospadias. It occurs due to a fibrous band that develops on the underside of the penis, causing it to bend downwards.

3. Symptoms of Hypospadias and Chordee

The main symptom of hypospadias is the abnormal location of the urinary opening, but other symptoms can appear, such as curvature of the penis, difficulty urinating, and spraying urine stream. Chordee presents itself with a curved penis that could cause complications during urination and sexual activity.

4. Diagnosis of Hypospadias and Chordee

Diagnosis of hypospadias and chordee involves a physical examination of the penis. Imaging studies such as ultrasounds and X-rays could be necessary to determine the extent of the abnormality. Urologists could conduct additional tests such as uroflowmetry and retrograde urethrography to evaluate the urinary tract function.

5. Treatment for Hypospadias and Chordee

Surgery is the most common treatment for hypospadias and chordee as it is the only way to correct the anatomical abnormality. The surgical procedure depends on the type and severity of the condition. A specialist could perform either a one-stage or two-stage surgery. In the one-stage surgery, the surgeon corrects both the chordee and the hypospadias in one procedure. In the two-stage surgery, the surgeon splits the process into two steps to ensure a more successful outcome. Postoperative care includes antibiotics, pain relievers, and follow-up check-ups.

6. Risks of Surgery

Risks associated with hypospadias and chordee surgery include bleeding, infection, and anesthesia complications. There is also a risk of the urinary tract narrowing as a result of the procedure.

7. Recovery Period

Recovery time and the period required for the patient to be able to resume normal activities differ for every patient. It is essential to follow the doctor’s specific instructions to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome.

8. Psychological Effects of Hypospadias and Chordee on Patients

Hypospadias and chordee could affect patients psychologically as it could impact their self-esteem and confidence, especially if left untreated. It is vital to provide support, reassurance, and guidance such as counseling to the patient and their family.

9. Long-term Outlook

With proper treatment, most patients recover and have no long-term effects. However, some patients might require additional surgeries or face complications such as urinary tract infections.

10. Prevention of Hypospadias and Chordee

Although it is impossible to prevent hypospadias and chordee, pregnant women should avoid exposure to harmful chemicals such as pesticides, lead, and phthalates. It is also essential to maintain a healthy lifestyle throughout pregnancy and consult a healthcare provider regarding proper prenatal care.


Q.1. Can hypospadias and chordee occur in females?

A. No. Hypospadias and chordee are male-specific congenital abnormalities.

Q.2. How long does a hypospadias surgery take?

A. It depends on the complexity of the condition and the surgeon’s expertise. Typically, surgery takes between one and three hours.

Q.3. Can hypospadias and chordee surgery affect the child’s fertility in the future?

A. While some males with hypospadias and chordee may experience infertility, it may be unrelated to their corrective surgery.

Q.4. What is the success rate for hypospadias surgery?

A. Overall, the success rate for hypospadias surgery is high. While there is a chance for complications, they are usually rare and easily treated.

Q.5. Is it essential to treat hypospadias and chordee?

A. Yes. Treatment is necessary to avoid complications such as difficulty urinating and a painful erection during sexual activity that could impact the patient’s quality of life.

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