February 20, 2023

As a woman, you have likely heard of a Pap smear – a common gynecologic examination used to detect potential abnormalities in the cervix. However, receiving abnormal results from a Pap smear can be a worrying and confusing experience, especially if you do not know why.

In this blog post, we will share six shocking reasons why your Pap smear results may be abnormal, covering key aspects of the topic such as common causes, prevention, and treatment options. Let’s dive in!

1. Human papillomavirus (HPV)

One of the significant reasons behind abnormal Pap smear results is HPV infection. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that spreads through skin-to-skin contact, including vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The virus can cause abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix, increasing the risk of cervical cancer.

Fortunately, HPV can be prevented through the HPV vaccine, which is routinely recommended for girls aged 11-12. It can also be treated through a range of options, including topical medication or surgical removal of affected cells.

2. Cervical dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia is a condition where the cells of the cervix grow abnormally. It is usually caused by HPV and is common in women aged 25-35. Cervical dysplasia can range in severity from mild to severe, and without proper treatment, it can lead to cervical cancer.

Treatment for cervical dysplasia typically involves surgical removal of the affected cells.

3. Inflammation or infection

Inflammation or infection of the cervix can also cause abnormal Pap smear results. Common causes of cervix inflammation or infection include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, trichomoniasis, and gonorrhea.

Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific infection and may include antibiotics or antifungal medications.

4. Menopause

As women age and approach menopause, hormonal changes can cause the cervix’s lining to thin, leading to abnormal Pap smear results. Additionally, cervical polyps or fibroids can develop in menopausal women, which can also affect Pap smear results.

Regular gynecological check-ups are essential for women during menopause to ensure any abnormalities are detected early and treated appropriately.

5. False positives

False positive Pap smear results can occur when the test results identify an abnormality, but further testing shows the cells are normal. Factors such as inflammation, excess mucus, or a poorly timed test can contribute to false positive results.

If you receive a false positive result, your healthcare provider may recommend follow-up testing to confirm the results.

6. Poor sample collection

Finally, an abnormal Pap smear result can be due to poor sample collection during the examination. Improper sample collection, such as not collecting enough cells or collecting cells from the wrong area, can lead to inconclusive or inaccurate results.

It is crucial to ensure you receive Pap smears from a qualified and experienced healthcare provider to minimize the risk of poor sample collection.


Receiving abnormal Pap smear results can be concerning, but it is essential to remember that there are many possible reasons for the outcome. HPV, cervical dysplasia, inflammation or infection, menopause, false positives, and poor sample collection are among the most common causes of abnormal results. However, with regular gynecological check-ups, appropriate treatment, and preventative measures such as the HPV vaccine, you can minimize your risk of developing cervical cancer.


Q1. How often should I get a Pap smear?

A: The recommended frequency of Pap smears depends on your age and medical history. Generally, women should receive their first Pap smear at age 21 and then every three years until age 65. However, if you have a history of abnormal Pap smears or cervical cancer in your family, your healthcare provider may recommend more frequent screening.

Q2. Does an abnormal Pap smear mean I have cancer?

A: No, an abnormal Pap smear does not necessarily mean you have cancer. It is essential to follow up with your healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause of the abnormal results.

Q3. Can I still get an HPV vaccine if I have already been sexually active?

A: Yes, even if you have been sexually active, you can still receive the HPV vaccine. However, the vaccine is most effective if given before sexual activity begins.

Q4. How is cervical dysplasia treated?

A: Cervical dysplasia is typically treated through surgical removal of the affected cells. More severe cases may require more invasive procedures such as a cone biopsy.

Q5. How long does it take to get Pap smear results?

A: Pap smear results usually take several days to a week to come back from the laboratory. However, your healthcare provider may not contact you right away if the results are normal. Be sure to follow up with your provider if you do not hear back.

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