Coronary artery bypass surgery (also known as coronary artery bypass grafting or CABG) is a procedure used to treat patients suffering from coronary artery disease. The narrowing or blockage of one or more of the coronary arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart is known as coronary artery disease (CAD). Three or four coronary arteries are often bypassed during surgery.
By building a “detour” (bypass) through the blocked artery/arteries, coronary artery bypass surgery restores regular blood flow to the heart. This is accomplished by using a graft, which is a healthy blood vessel. Grafts are normally taken from arteries and veins in the chest, leg, or arm.
The graft establishes a new route for oxygen-rich blood to reach the heart. The leading hospitals in your city are sure to offer you the best medical treatment for this. If you look up, say the best heart surgery hospital in Bangalore, you will be sure to find ample provisions there.
Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts
The most common bypass grafts are internal thoracic arteries (ITA grafts or internal mammary arteries. They are the gold standard of treatment, and any patient undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery should have these arteries. The ITAs provide the best long-term outcomes. In your abdomen, you have two internal thoracic arteries.
Since these arteries have their own oxygen-rich blood supply, they can normally be kept intact at their origin during bypass surgery. The other end of the catheter is cut and sewn to the coronary artery below the blockage. A “free” artery is one that does not need to be fully cut.
Another common form of arterial graft is the radial (arm) artery. The ulnar and radial arteries are the two main arteries in the limb. Since the ulnar artery supplies blood to the arm, most people experience no complications when the radial artery is used as a graft. If your surgeon chooses to use your radial artery, you can undergo checks both before and after surgery to ensure that this is the right choice for you.
Veins in your legs called saphenous veins can be used as bypass grafts. A long incision is not needed for minimally invasive saphenous vein removal. Instead, 1-2 incisions at the knee and a small incision at the groin are made.
Compared to conventional surgery, this form of removal leaves less scarring and allows for a quicker recovery. Despite the fact that much has been done to strengthen the outcomes of vein grafts, they nevertheless struggle in the long run.
What Happens During Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery?
One look at the best heart surgery hospital in Bangalore (your city) and you will know exactly what pans out on the table. The surgery will be performed under general anesthesia. The surgeon prepares the arteries or removes the veins that will be used as bypass grafts as the first step in the procedure.
The surgeon then makes an incision through your sternum (breast bone) down the middle of your chest to expose your heart and coronary arteries. Your heart will most likely be stopped for a brief period of time so that the surgeon can perform the bypass surgery on a “still” heart.
The heart-lung bypass machine takes over for the heart and lungs throughout this time, allowing blood to continue to flow throughout the remainder of the procedure. This is referred to as “on-pump” surgery. While the heart is still pounding, the surgery may often be performed without the use of a heart-lung machine. The procedure is known as “off-pump” or “beating heart” surgery.